# The basics and companies of lithium-ion batteries

This article provides basic knowledge of Li-ion batteries, significant manufacturers, and major models equipped with Li-ion batteries.

TOC

## Main Materials

I describe the four main components that make up a battery cell.

It is mainly the cathode and anode materials that determine performance.

### Cathode Materials

Cathode materials are used in the cathode of batteries.

It has the most significant impact on the performance of lithium-ion batteries.

### Anode materials

Athode materials are used in the anode of batteries.

It is the second most significant factor affecting the performance of lithium-ion batteries.

The appropriate material is selected based on the combination with the cathode.

### Separator

The separator is an insulating material placed between the cathode and anode materials.

### Electrolyte

The electrolyte is an electrolyte that facilitates the transfer of lithium ions between the positive and negative electrodes.

## Cathode Materials

The three main cathode materials currently in use are NMC, NCA, and LFP, with NMC and NCA accounting for approximately 70% of the total. The characteristics of each and the major companies employing the materials are listed below.

### $$\displaystyle NMC:LiNi_{x} Co_{y}Mn_{z}O_{2}$$(nickel–cobalt–manganese oxide manganese)

The energy density of a single cell: 230~250Wh/kg[10]

It is called the ternary system and is the most used material.

Increasing the nickel ratio increases the capacity.

Major Companies: CATL, LG, Samsung

### $$\displaystyle NCA:LiNi_{0.8}Co_{0.15}Al_{0.05}O_{2}$$(Lithium Nickel-Cobalt-Aluminum Oxide)

Cell level energy density:322Wh/kg

This cathode material is said to have the highest energy density.

It is said to use less Co than NMC.

Major Companies: Panasonic

### $$\displaystyle LFP:LiFePO_{4}$$ (Lithium iron phosphate)

The energy density of a single cell: 130~160Wh/kg

Although LFP does not have high energy density and low-temperature performance, it is a low-cost, heat-resistant, safe, and durable material.

LFP attracts attention because of its low risk of price hikes due to the absence of nickel and is used mainly by Chinese manufacturers.

Major Companies: CATL, BYD

## Anode Materials

Graphite is commonly used as the anode material and is used in most car models.

There is a lot of research being done to increase capacity by adding silicon to the anode material graphite.
It has been applied to Tesla model 3 and others.

## Cell shape

There are three types: cylindrical, square, and laminated.

### Cylindrical lithium Cells

Excellent impact and pressure resistance

Low energy density due to large porosity when packaging multiple cells

Major Companies: Panasonic

### Prismatic lithium cell

Easy to load and increase energy density

Less heat loss, impact resistance, and pressure resistance than cylindrical type

Major Companies: CATL, BYD, Samsung

### Pouch lithium cell

Easy to reduce weight

Low strength, impact and pressure resistance

Major Companies: LG, SK, AESC

## Major Battery Manufacturers

The companies are listed below, sorted by market share.[9]

## Major car models and batteries used

Battery capacity, cathode material, and anode material for major car models are organized as below.

*1 Capacity per unit mass as a battery pack, not a cell.

## References

[1]https://www.nedo.go.jp/content/100927227.pdf

[2]https://cleantechnica.com/2020/02/19/catl-built-tesla-model-3-battery-pack-will-use-prismatic-cells/

[3]https://thedriven.io/model/tesla-model-3-standard-range-plus/

[4]https://cleantechnica.com/2018/07/08/tesla-model-3-chevy-bolt-battery-packs-examined/

[5]https://pushevs.com/2020/04/04/comparison-of-different-ev-batteries-in-2020/

[6]https://evcompare.io/cars/byd/byd-tang-ev600d-%E6%99%BA%E8%81%94%E5%88%9B%E4%B8%96%E5%9E%8B-5%E5%BA%A7/

[7]https://insideevs.com/news/513540/interbattery-sk-f150-lightning-ioniq5/

[8]https://insideevs.com/news/377633/nissan-ariya-child-leaf-rogue/

[9]https://weekly-economist.mainichi.jp/articles/20210202/se1/00m/020/027000c

[10]https://poworks.com/a-comparison-of-nmc-nca-lithium-ion-battery-and-lfp-battery

[11]https://pushevs.com/2020/05/13/volkswagen-meb-details/

[12]https://www.winackbattery.com/news/Internal-Structure-of-SGMW-Wuling-Hongguang-MINI-EV-Battery-Pack.html

[13] https://response.jp/article/2022/05/27/357606.html